Advantages and disadvantages of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of propolis

2021-07-21


There are many extraction techniques and methods for propolis. Here we introduce the method of purifying propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology. Let's take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of this purification technology? The details are as follows:
Introduction to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Technology: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Technology (SFE-CO2) is an international high-tech separation technology that rapidly developed in the 1990s. SFE-CO2 technology uses carbon dioxide fluids at or above critical pressure to replace organic solvents as extractants. Carbon dioxide, due to its low critical temperature and pressure (31.06 ℃, 7.39 MPa), has a strong affinity for natural products with medium to low molecular weight and non polarity, and is colorless, odorless, non-toxic, non flammable, non explosive, low expansion, low viscosity, low surface tension, easy separation, and cost-effective It is a widely used supercritical fluid due to its easy production of high-purity gases and other characteristics. This fluid has the characteristics of both high liquid density and low gas viscosity, high diffusion coefficient, and extremely high solubility. It can penetrate into the matrix of the extracted material and play a very effective extraction function. SFE-CO2 technology is a process that utilizes the strong solubility of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid to extract various effective contents from plants and plants, and then releases them through reduced pressure.
Advantages of Supercritical fluid extraction technology in purifying propolis: the whole process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and separation is carried out in a high-pressure closed container, without bacteria and any foreign impurities. At the same time, the temperature of each section of the system is generally not more than 65 ℃ when extracting bioactive substances, so as to ensure that the thermosensitive substances in propolis are not damaged, and because carbon dioxide is an inert gas, propolis will not be oxidized. Supercritical fluid is more effective in separating propolis, eliminating the need for solvent heating and recovery during general organic solvent extraction. Therefore, it does not have the disadvantage of residual organic solvents, and the extraction speed is fast, making it particularly suitable for extracting volatile compounds in propolis.
Example: Gu Yuhong et al. used supercritical CO2 and ethanol as a entrainer to extract flavonoids from propolis. The extract only contained a small amount of lipophilic substances such as resin and beeswax. The extraction method was simple and convenient, and the optimal conditions for extraction were: crushing particle size of 20 mesh, extraction pressure of 35MPa, extraction temperature of 40 ℃, propolis to entrainer dosage ratio of 1:2. Han Yuqian et al. studied the extraction process of effective propolis content using supercritical CO2 extraction using a four factor and three level orthogonal design, and analyzed the composition of propolis extract using GC-MS. The results showed that the optimal process conditions for effective propolis content extraction using supercritical CO2 were extraction temperature 55 ℃, extraction pressure 30 MPa, CO2 circulation rate 0.6 kg/g, and w (carrier)=5%. Zeng Zhijiang and others found that Supercritical fluid extraction was an effective method to remove lead from propolis raw materials when they used supercritical CO2 to extract propolis. Brazilian propolis contains 3,5-isopreno-4-neneneba hydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA, artecillin C), which can inhibit the growth of tumor cells and is one of the important physiological activities. Lee et al. used supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to purify DHCA from Brazilian propolis. The extraction temperature and the amount of ethyl acetate added were the main factors affecting the extraction rate and product purity of DHCA. Adding 6% ethyl acetate increased the extraction rate from 3.7% without addition to 13.9%. The DPHA purity of supercritical CO2 extraction was all 40%, much higher than that of ethyl acetate Soxhlet extraction method, which was 16.9%.
The disadvantages of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology for propolis: The supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology also has its drawbacks, namely, it is suitable for the extraction of lipophilic and small molecular weight substances; When separating and extracting substances with high polarity and molecular weight, such as glycosides and polysaccharides, entrainers need to be added and carried out under high pressure, which brings certain difficulties and high costs to industrialization. But overall, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology can effectively preserve certain active substances in propolis. It is a promising high-tech for extracting certain active substances from propolis.

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